Earth observations for ecology in CAR.
My country, the Central African Republic, is mostly known for uranium and diamond mining in the South East and for oil in the North West, but our greatest natural resource is protected through our national parks.
I run the Nouabalé Ndoki Natural Park. It’s 400km from the capital, Bangui. The road is bad and some of the year you can’t pass.
Our park is part of the Dzanga-Sangha Tri-national area shared with Cameroun and the Republic of Congo - the second biggest rainforest on earth and the green lungs of the planet.
We’ve been collecting forest data since 2012, we use cyber trackers and hidden cameras as well as acoustic measurements of the elephants. Elephants make infrasonic sounds, below the range audible to humans – which we can pick up to track their movements.
Also, we have a drone coming this year, in 2017, which will contribute forest data. We use these Earth observations to stop animal poaching and we have eco-guards who enforce fines. The penalty for killing an elephant was recently increased in CAR to 1 year in prison. Elephant numbers were going down, but are now stable and from January to March you can see around 200 elephants in a single day.
Our park attracts around 500 tourists a year and our main activity for poverty reduction is eco-tourism. However, we can’t have too many more tourists than that, we have a pristine natural resource to maintain.
I’ve been part of the GEO community since 2006 and we’ve been proud to host visits to our park for AfriGEOSS to demonstrate the power of data sharing for nature conservation.
Open Geospatial Standards with Mark Reichardt, CEO.
OGC and GEO – in partnership from the start
Partnerships are key to our success. The context of location permeates across all disciplines. OGC has established numerous alliance partnerships with other standards organizations and associations as a mechanism to improve our standards and best practices through better understanding of community needs. These partnerships also enable us to coordinate on activities of mutual interest, driving outcomes that could not have been achieved in isolation. To date, OGC has over 40 such partnerships spanning sensors and IoT, built infrastructure, smart cities, modeling and simulation, law enforcement, the smart grid, and of course Earth Observation to name a few. Our partnership with GEO is one of our more important relationships given the role that standards and interoperability play as an integration platform for the large-scale heterogenous global array of EO sensors and sensor systems.
The OGC / GEO partnership began in the early 2000’s as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) open web service standards gained global implementation – improving the ability of geospatial technologies and data sources to work together seamlessly. This was around the same time as OGC members began interacting with GEO and GEOSS activities to assist in advancing Earth observation interoperability arrangements in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) - drawing on standards from IEEE, ISPRS and the OGC.
OGC members recognized early on the importance of a close and continuous relationship with GEO. In February 2005, OGC became a GEO Participating Organization at the final ad hoc GEO Plenary. Shortly thereafter, OGC participated in the Earth Observation Summit that formally established GEO.
Role of Open Standards In GEO
The initial GEOSS 10 Year Plan identified a bold vision to create a system of systems based on voluntary contributions from nations and participating organizations from around the world. This vision is now being realized by GEO through an architecture based on open international consensus standards.
Just as the internet continues to grow and prosper based on an open standards architecture, creating a system of systems for Earth observations required a similar standards framework that would also address the unique aspects of the varied characteristics of EO systems and information.
The role of open standards as expressed in the GEOSS Architecture / GCI is significant. They provide a level of interoperability that enables organizations and nations to contribute and share their EO assets to more effectively address a range of social, economic and environmental issues.
OGC Role in GEO
OGC’s involvement in GEO has been significant and varied:
From 2005 to 2008, OGC in conjunction with IEEE and ISPRS planned and conducted a series of GEOSS Architecture workshops in locations around the world. OGC’s role was to conduct live demonstrations of GEOSS architecture capabilities based on OGC standards. These workshops and demonstrations were well received, helping to validate the power of an interoperable architecture for GEOSS, and inform the community of how to implement and scale this architecture.
On behalf of GEO, OGC conducted a series of GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilots (AIP) bringing together the user community, industry, and the university and research community to develop an architecture for the GEOSS including GEOSS Common Infrastructure components. A series of eight Architecture Implementation Pilots developed and implemented operational prototype capabilities using OGC’s Interoperability Program rapid prototyping and engineering process. AIP Phase 1 was conducted in 2007, and focused on evaluation of the GEOSS Initial Operating Capability produced by the GEOSS Architecture and Data Committee.
Subsequent AIP phases addressed topics in the context of GEO Societal Benefit Areas such as: renewable energy planning and placement, air quality assessment, habitat management and forecasting, disaster management, water quality and drought, and disease surveillance. For each of these AIP phases, operational prototypes, live demonstrations and detailed engineering reports and best practice videos were delivered and made public to encourage adoption of the GEOSS Architecture. These can be found on the OGC website at www.opengeospatial.org and at our YouTube channel “ogcvideo”.
OGC continues to support a range of GEO activities and members are involved in a range of activities including Flagships, GEO Initiatives and Community Activities as defined in the current GEO Work Programme. Further, OGC serves as an active member of the GEO Programme Board.
The OGC plans and conducts a range of interoperability testbeds and pilot initiatives to rapidly develop, test, validate and demonstrate the power and effectiveness of new and enhanced candidate standards and architectural best practices. OGC is presently seeking participation in its next major interoperability testbed – OGC Testbed 13. This initiative has a significant emphasis on the access, processing and application of EO data. I encourage GEO Members and Participating Organizations to review the Call for Participation which is open until 17 February 2017. The Mass Population Migration and other themes of this testbed will benefit from access to a broad range of EO sources, and I can see great opportunity to leverage assets available through the GEO portal and GEO Members.
As the GEOSS approach calls for open standards, it is vital that the implementations conform to those open standards. OGC’s Compliance Program provides a testing framework to certify that implementations conform to OGC standards. The OGC Compliance Program testing infrastructure can be applied to confirm use of OGC standards in GEOSS as well as extending this open source testing framework to other standards used in GEOSS.
OGC is a participating member of a H2020 NextGEOSS project, which will implement a federated data hub for access and exploitation of Earth Observation data, including user-friendly tools for data mining, discovery, access and exploitation. This data hub will be supported by a strong commitment to the engagement of Earth Observation and related communities, with the view of supporting the creation of innovative and business oriented applications.
NextGEOSS includes a set of demonstrative pilot activities based on research topics, and various business scenarios. These Pilots will showcase GEOSS capabilities with emphasis on data accessibility and use, and will directly engage GEO and other EO-related communities, including the commercial sector. The GEO Secretariat will announce the Call for Participation to AIPs.
OGC also has a standing Domain Working Group on Earth System Science, as well as a range of working groups that rely heavily on EO information. These working groups would benefit from deeper involvement by GEO Members and Participating Organizations to identify new geospatial interoperability challenges requiring action by the standards community. Most of these DWGs are open to participation by OGC members and the broader community.
Finally, OGC conducts quarterly Technical Committee meetings where OGC Members converge to discuss interoperability issues and work to advance solutions. Our 102nd Technical Committee meeting will take place in Delft, The Netherlands during the week of 20 March, 2017. I encourage GEO representatives to consider participating in these meetings to further strengthen the ties and alignment of activities of importance to our organizations.
GEO Value at the American Geophysical Union.
GEOValue is an international community with focus on the value and socioeconomic impacts of geospatial and environmental information for decisions. Geospatial information contributes to decisions by societal decision-makers, business leaders and individuals.
More effective use of information is essential as issues become increasingly complex and consequences are critical for future economic and social development. To achieve this vision, our “community” includes a wide range of natural science, social, economic, management and communication disciplines, and stresses communication and collaboration across specialties.
The Public Affairs sessions at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting are a great way for community face-to-face exchanges, and outreach to many different earth science domains (we have conducted sessions there since 2012).
This year, we opened our AGU presence early Monday morning at 8am, with “GEOValue: Addressing best practices for assessing the societal impact and value of geospatial information based on use cases”. Despite the early start, we had a great set of speakers and audience discussing a broad range of use cases/assessment methodologies. Topics ranged from watershed assessment, to endogeneity of rainfall, to forest fire prevention, to narrowing uncertainty in climate sensitivity.
We had two traditional invited talks, five lightning talks and a panel for the speakers and audience to delve into more details after the lightning talks. Our presenters were consistent with the community diversity - social scientists, economists, and natural scientists; they came from academia, public service, and industry. The session was concluded by a tribute to the life and accomplishments of Molly Macauley, a leading figure in the field, who passed away tragically in 2016.
That afternoon, and on the following days, we had several poster sessions, which allowed interesting discussions on the value chain – from data to decisions, and on representative use cases.
Tribute to Giovanni Rum who retires from GEO in December.
It has been a pleasure and great experience working with you, Giovanni.
I think anyone involved with the GEO community knows Giovanni, the outgoing Senior Programme Officer at GEO. Over the course of the first decade of GEO, he helped to shape the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). He’s also been instrumental in setting the course for the next decade of GEO.
Giovanni spent the majority of his career at the Italian Space Agency, from 1981 to June 2006, where he was the Head of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Earth Observation Unit, before joining the GEO Secretariat.
Giovanni has also been a member of the ESA Earth Observation Program Board, CEOS, and worked closely with Institutional Users to introduce satellite data and related information into their decision processes.
Giovanni, I think we first met over ten years ago. Probably for the first time in a Sentinel Asia disaster monitoring workshop in Malaysia or a GEO Asia-Pacific symposium.
Since about 2008, we have had a close working partnership under the GEO Forest Carbon Tracking task (now GFOI), with lots of joint coordination workshops and meetings around the world.
I have valued your friendship and professional approach to the complex environment of GEO and associated initiatives, and I wish you all the best in retirement.
I’m sure we will cross paths again, anyway, soon
GEO pushes for adequate biodiversity monitoring for the planet of tomorrow.
The world has agreed that we live on a planet under threat and we need to sustain the rich diversity of life on Earth. Commitments came through the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity signed by government leaders; and the 20 time bound, measurable targets agreed by those parties in 2010.
The Aichi Targets are now being translated into national strategies by all countries – and we at GEO BON are there to remind all 193 parties to the convention that they can’t set targets without assessing the status and trends of biodiversity, through observation.
I attended the 13th Conference of the Parties this month in Mexico to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity observation networks. Consistent biodiversity monitoring is fundamental – and GEO BON is helping countries to work on improving consistency.
In collaboration with the Alexander von Humboldt Institute in Colombia we developed BON in a Box, an online toolkit for technology transfer. BON in a Box is a mechanism for capacity building to assist countries in the development of biodiversity observation.
GEO BON is also working on the development of the Essential Biodiversity Variables and on biodiversity change indicators to assess progress to specific Aichi targets which rely on the availability of repeated biodiversity observations in time but also on a better geographical coverage.
As isolated science research programmes start to become more uniform and connected through GEO BON, we can build up a more accurate picture of the world today, and how to manage it for tomorrow.
Watch the GEO BON side event on Periscope, by the Humboldt Institut, Colombia.
MYGEOSS - apps for better lives.
Apps really allow you to hold Earth observation data in the palm of your hand. Over the past two years, the European Commission has supported the development of web-based and mobile applications as tools to support citizen science and make greater use of open data and data from GEOSS. Also, as you contribute data about your environment, such as the local weather or air quality, you become more aware about it and that shared information makes the app smarter for everyone.
MYGEOSS received funding from the Horizon 2020 R&D programme of the European Union, and was carried out by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC). The project ran for two years, from January 2015 to December 2016, with three open calls for innovative ideas based on open data. We had more than 160 proposals, around a third each from research institutions and individuals. The other 40 percent of proposals came from small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which is great, because we want to involve more businesses in developing apps to turn Earth observation data into useful information. Here’s my top pick of a few of the 39 apps developed through MYGEOSS.
MIGRATE – migration patterns in Europe by Poli GeoWizards gaming app aims to raise awareness and challenge misconceptions and fears about migration in Europe. Here’s an incentive to use the app, the top 10 players between now and 5 January win an award.
Our health is all we have and one of the biggest environmental threats to health – measurable by Earth observations – is air pollution. We have three apps to cover that. CALIOPE, by Barcelona Super Computing Centre, gives air quality forecast of all major air pollutants ON a 24 hour bases: ozone (YUO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). eQUOS app by Filippo Macaluso provides quality data for outdoor sports, to help you decide whether to go for a run or if it would be wiser to head for the gym. SenseEurAir pushes warnings form official air quality data networks in Europe, so if the air pollution levels in your area exceed a pre-set threshold, you’ll know about it.
Some cities are better than others in considering artful use of streetlights to good effect so monuments are illuminated, citizens are safe and light pollution is reduced. It’s not an easy balance and My Simulated Sky at Night can help choose the appropriate type of lighting. This app is a follow up to the hugely successful Loss of the Night which makes skyglow data accessible. Both apps were developed by Interactive Scape, in Berlin.
As the extra-terrestrial film Arrival hits cinema screens this week, citizens should remain calm when they use IASTracker, or Invasive Alien Species in Europe, two apps to locate Invasive Alien Species, not of the inter-galactic kind. Plants such as knotweed, bugs and other creatures can cause expensive damage to property and local biodiversity. These apps help identify and locate plants, birds and insects in a way that is easy to use for non-biologists and feed the European data centre on Invasive Alien Species managed by the JRC.
There are so many more I would like to mention – OdorCollect – for citizens to report nasty smells, GEOAvalanche to keep mountaineers and skiers up to date on the latest conditions. My recommendation – try them all! Some are little more than prototypes while others are already more developed. In any case if you find a good idea, you can access the open source code and open data from the MYGEOSS website, and develop the apps further yourself or in partnership with a friendly geek!
See the full list of all the My GEOSS apps in the Digital Earth Lab gallery here.
Building a Great Green Wall Across Africa.
The Great Green Wall is a transcontinental programme for Africa, to plant trees in a 15 km wide band across 12 countries, stretching for 7,000 km across one of the most difficult places to measure on the planet.
The Great Green Wall should increase reforestation, reduce soil erosion, develop and diversify agriculture and conserve plants and biodiversity. The Pan-African Agency of the Great Green Wall is responsible for planning and monitoring. My organization, The Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS), based in Tunisia, is leading on Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E).
All the technical and financial partners involved in the definition, implementation and evaluation of activities for land rehabilitation and conservation under the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative expect to rely on trusted, standardized systems for monitoring and evaluation of progress against agreed-upon objectives.
OSS is tasked with the development of geospatial applications and capacity building with national partners on questions linked to monitoring and evaluation. We developed an online geoportal giving access to thematic data with spatial references for technicians in charge of management of natural resources at national program level.
OSS has also developed geographic information systems for all SAWAP* national programmes, consisting of a planning tool to help decision making and the development of spatial data for follow up of activities.
OSS has produced a mapping of land use with the latest data of 30m resolution, covering the whole of the 12 countries in the SAWAP program. We’ve also produced a training kit for monitoring and evaluation which is used to support capacity building activities for managers and technicians for the national projects. Mapping national project sites at a scale higher than Sentinel2-MS data is planned for 2017.
We’re pleased OSS was approved as a Participating Organization of GEO at the GEO-XIII Plenary in November 2016. For us, one of the biggest advantages of GEO membership is to be in contact with experts, data providers and Earth observation initiatives at the international level. This means we can share experiences on the approaches and environmental surveillance techniques involved in remote sensing.
We’re also looking to GEO for promotion of Earth observations techniques and data use in the Sahara and to support and reinforce the capacities of partners and institutions in member countries.
*National projects implementing the Great Green Wall are supported by the Sahel and West Africa Program (SAWAP) through the World Bank’s Global Environment Facility (GEF). OSS is responsible for Monitoring and Evaluation, (M&E) under the BRICKS 12 country regional knowledge and monitoring hub. BRICKS is run in partnership with the Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) and IUCN.
Nabil Ben Khatra, Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (OSS)
UNFCCC Earth Info Day and open Earth observation data.
Last week in Marrakech at the 2016 UN Climate Change Conference known as COP 22, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was represented by a number of Participating Organisations. In particular, Dr Werner Kutsch, Director General of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) delivered two presentations relating to GEO.
Werner presented at the EarthInfo Day, held to connect the science community to Party and non-Party stakeholders to benefit the intergovernmental process and the Paris Agreement implementation. The event took place on the second day of COP 22 and aimed to inform the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA). It focused on observations necessary for well-guided actions and opportunities to support adaptation in Africa.
To support sustainable development and reviewing, tracking and reaching the Paris Agreement goals, extended scientific knowledge is required to assist governments and other stakeholders. Earth observations are the base to provide this knowledge. Werner presented GEO’s efforts in support of the Paris Agreement and the GEO initiative on carbon and greenhouse gases that integrates actions across scientific domains.
The event provided an update on the status of the climate, the global carbon budget and the development of indicators to support adaptation and mitigation. Also, the new Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan 2016 was launched, which describes how essential climate variables, indicators and actions support the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. GCOS is the overarching body for coordinating the development of observation concepts and consulting SBSTA. It furthermore endorses and supports the implementing organisations.
In terms of Earth observations there were presentations introducing novel technical-scientific approaches in the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as actions and services to support adaptation in Africa. GEO is also very active in Africa through AfriGEOSS.
We were very pleased that Werner was able to represent the broad open Earth observations perspective alongside other GEO Participating Organisations, including the EarthInfo Day organisers UNFCCC, WMO and UNESCO-IOC.
There is a fantastic summary of EarthInfo Day here.
This is the first in a series of GEO blog posts, which will be known as Observations.
Steven Ramage, GEO Secretariat
phone: +41 22 730 8505
fax: +41 22 730 8520
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